"Pasteurizationwas also found to affect the hematogenic and growth-promotingproperties of the special milk (raw milk from specially fedcows, whose milk did not produce nutritional anemia--whereascommercially pasteurized milk did) ..."
-Krauss,W. E., Erb, J.H. and Washburn, R. G., Studies on the nutritivevalue of milk II. The effect of pasteurization on some ofthe nutritive properties of milk," Ohio AgriculturalExperiment Station Bulletin 518, page 11, January, 1933.
"Resistanceto tuberculosis increased in children fed raw milk insteadof pasteurized, to the point that in five years only one caseof pulmonary TB had developed, whereas in the previous fiveyears, when children had been given pasteurized milk, 14 casesof pulmonary TB had developed."
-TheLancet, page 1142, May 8, 1937
"Human orcow milk added to an equal volume of agar did not supportthe growth or allowed only slight growth of B. diphtheriaeStaph. aureus, B. coli, B. prodigiosus, B. pyocyaneus, B.anthracis, streptococci, and unidentified wild yeast. Thefactors in human milk inhibiting bacterial growth (‘inhibins’)were inactivated by heating at 56 degrees C. (pasteurizationtemperatures of 60 to 70 degrees C.) for 30 minutes or bystanding 12 to 24 days at 5 degrees C., but not by repeatedfreezing and thawing. The ‘inhibins’ in cow’smilk were not inactivated by heating at 80 degrees C. forseven minutes but were destroyed by heating at 85 degreesC. for seven minutes. Attempts have not been made to identifythe natural antiseptics."
-Dold,H., Wizaman, E., and Kleiner, C., Z. Hyt. Inf., "Antisepticin milk," The Drug and Cosmetic Industry, 43,1:109,July, 1938.
"Milk, ananimal product, is the essential food of all infant mammals.Mammals are so classified in the scale of living things becauseof the common characteristic of the female nursing her young.The infant mammal is accordingly carnivorous in his naturalhabits irrespective of whether the adult of the species isherbivorous or carnivorous.
If the adults ona carnivorous diet show conditions of deficiency on cookedmeat, is it not reasonable to suppose that growing infantson entirely cooked carnivorous diets will do likewise? Manyexperimenters, such as Catel, Dutcher, Wilson, and others,have shown such to be the case in animals fed on pasteurizedmilk ...
Can human infantsbe born of mothers who are deficient, and yet attain a fairdegree of skeletal development if given a proper raw milksupply? The three infants in figure 4 were born of mothersknown to by hypothyroid. Prior to the birth of the infantsshown, all three mothers had given birth to children withinthree years. Each of the previous children was asthmatic,showed infantile rickets, and possessed poor skeletal development.
The first childshown in Figure 4 was breastfed from birth, with the motherliving under excellent health-promoting conditions. The secondchild was on powdered milk for four weeks, and on raw certifiedmilk after that without cod-liver oil or orange juice. Boththe first and second child began supplemental feedings whenthey were about five months old and were very healthy babies.The third baby was always sickly and had been on formulaesince birth.
These formulaeincluded powdered milk, pasteurized milk, boiled milk, boiledcertified milk and canned milk. She had suffered from severegastric distress during her entire infancy and when eightmonths old she developed asthma. She is very small thoughher parents are of larger build than the parents of the othertwo children.
The strictest bacteriologicstandards for milk must always be maintained. The feedingof cattle should receive greater attention. It should be determinedexperimentally, if possible, whether health and resistanceare undermined by pasteurization. If so, in our attempt toprotect the child from milk-borne infections, we may be denyinghis heritage of good health by removing from his milk vitamins,hormones, and enzymes that control mineral assimilation andpromote body development and general resistance to disease.Is it also possible that these same elements are as importantto the adult invalid who needs milk as to the infant?
Let us have closercooperation between raw-milk producers and public-health officialsso that the growth-producing factors of raw milk can be studied.We cannot afford to pasteurize milk if it is found that pasteurizationdiminishes the potency of the growth-promoting factors thatdetermine the skeletal development of our children. We cannotafford to lessen the resistance of our children to respiratoryinfection, asthma, bronchitis and the common cold when factorspreventing them are present in greater amounts in properlyclean raw milk than in pasteurized milk."
-Pottenger,F. M. Jr., "Clinical and experimental evidence of growthfactors in raw milk," Certified Milk, January, 1937.
"Some havequestioned whether pasteurized milk is really involved inthe production of scurvy. The fact, however, that when onegives a group of infants this food for a period of about sixmonths, instances of scurvy occur, and that a cure is broughtabout when raw milk is substituted, taken in conjunction withthe fact that if we feed the same number of infants on rawmilk, cases of scurvy will not develop--these results seemsufficient to warrant the deduction that pasteurized milkis a causative factor.
The experiencein Berlin, noted by Newmann (Newmann, H., Deutsch. Klin.,7:341, 1904) and others, is most illuminating and convincingin this connection. In 1901 a large dairy in that city establisheda pasteurizing plant in which all milk was raised to a temperatureof about 60 degrees C. After an interval of some months, infantilescurvy was reported from various sources throughout the city.Neumann writes about the situation as follows:
‘Whereas Heubner,Cassel and myself had seen only 32 cases of scurvy from 1896to 1900, the number of cases suddenly rose from the year 1901,so that the same observers--not to mention a great many others--treated83cases in 1901 and 1902.’
An investigationwas made as to the cause, and the pasteurization was discontinued.The result was that the number of cases decreased just assuddenly as they had increased ..."
-Hess,A. F., "Infantile Scurvy, V. A study of its pathogenesis,"Am. J Dis. Child., November, 1917.
"Althoughpasteurized milk is to be recommended on account of the securitywhich it affords against infection, we should realize thatit is an incomplete food. Unless an antiscorbutic, such asorange juice, ... or potato water is added, infants willdevelop scurvy on this diet. This form of scurvy takes somemonths to develop and may be termed subacute. It must be considerednot only the most common form of this disorder, but the onewhich passes most often unrecognized. In order to guard againstit, infants fed exclusively on a diet of pasteurized milkshould be given antiscorbutics far earlier than is at presentthe custom, even as early as at the end of the first monthof life."
-Hess,A. F., "Infantile Scurvy. III. Its influence on growth(length and weight)," Am. J. Dis. Child., August, 1916.
"One of themost striking clinical phenomenon of infantile scurvy is themarked susceptibility to infection which it entails--the frequentattacks of ‘grippe,’ the widespread occurrence ofnasal diphtheria, the furunculosis of the skin, the dangerof pneumonia in advanced cases ..."
-Hess,A. F., "Infantile Scurvy. V. A study of its pathogenesis,"Am. J. Dis. Child., November, 1917.
"... Recently,Minot and his colleagues came to the conclusion that adultscurvy can be precipitated by infectious processes; in otherwords, that latent scurvy can by this means be changed tomanifest scurvy. In general, therefore, investigations inthe laboratory as well as clinical observations are in agreementin stressing the interrelationship of scurvy and bacterialinfection."
-Hess,A. F., "Recent advances in knowledge of scurvy andthe antiscorbutic vitamin," J.A.M.A., April 23, 1932.
This illustratesthe futility of pasteurization of milk to prevent infectionfrom diseases the cows may sometimes have, such as undulantfever. The infant is then made subject to the common infectiousdiseases, and deaths from these common diseases are not attributed,as they should be, to the defective nature of the milk.
Effectsof Pasteurization of Milk on Tooth Health
The Lancet, page1142, May 8, 1937 says that in children the teeth are lesslikely to decay on diet supplemented with raw milk than withpasteurized milk.
"Dr. EvelynSprawson of the London Hospital has recently stated that incertain institutions children who were brought up on raw milk(as opposed to pasteurized milk) had perfect teeth and nodecay. Whether this was due actually to the milk being unheated,or possibly to some other, quite different and so far unrecognizedcause, we cannot yet say; but we may be sure of one thing,that the result is so striking and unusual that it will undoubtedlybe made the subject of further inquiry."
-Harris,L.J., Vitamins in Theory and Practice, page 224, Cambridge,University Press, 1935.
Effectof Pasteurization of Milk on Growth
... Fisher andBartlett "point out by statistical treatment that theresponse in height to raw milk was significantly greater thanthat to pasteurized milk. Their interpretation of the dataled to the assertion that the pasteurized milk was only 66percent effective as the raw milk in the case of boys and91.1 percent as effective in the case of girls in inducingincreases in weight, and 50.0 percent as effective in boysand 70.0 percent in girls in bringing about height increases."
-Krauss,W. E., Erb, J. H. and Washburn, R.G., "Studies on thenutritive value of milk, II." "The effect of pasteurizationon some of the nutritive properties of milk," OhioAgricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 518, page 8, January1933.
"... Danielsand Loughlin observed that young rats fed long heat-treatedmilks, evaporated, condensed, and pasteurized by the ‘hold’method failed to grow normally, but if the precipitated calciumsalts were incorporated into the various milk, growth wasnormal ..."
-Daniels,A.L., and Loughlin, R., Journal of Biological Chemistry,44.381, 1920, as abstracted by Holmes and Pigott, "Factorsthat influence the anti-rachitic value of milk in infantfeeding," Oil & Soap, 12.9:202-207, September,1935.
CalciumAvailability in Pasteurized Milk
"Kramer, Latzkeand Shaw (Kramer, Martha M., Latzke, F., and Shaw, M.M., AComparison of Raw, Pasteurized, Evaporated and Dried Milksas Sources of Calcium and Phosphorus for the Human Subject,Journal of Biological Chemistry, 79:283-295, 1928) obtainedless favorable calcium balances in adults with pasteurizedmilk than with ‘fresh milk’ and made the furtherobservation that milk from cows kept in the barn for fivemonths gave less favorable calcium balances than did ‘freshmilk’ (herd milk from a college dairy)."
-Krauss,W. E., Erb, J.H., and Washburn, R.G., "Studies on thenutritive value of milk, II. The effect of pasteurizationon some of the nutritive properties of milk," OhioAgricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 518, page 8, January,1933.
"Guinea pigsfed raw milk with an addition of skim milk powder, copperand iron salts, carotene, and orange juice grew well and showedno abnormalities at autopsy. When pasteurized whole milk wasused, deficiency symptoms began to appear, wrist stiffnessbeing the first sign. The substitution of skim milk for wholemilk intensified the deficiency, which was characterized bygreat emaciation and weakness before death ... At autopsythe muscles were found to be extremely atrophied, and closelypacked, fine lines of calcification ran parallel to the fibers.Also calcification occurred in other parts of the body. Whencod liver oil replaced carotene in the diet, paralysis developedquickly. The feeding of raw cream cured the wrist stiffness."
-AnnualReview of Biochemistry, Vol. 18, Page 435. (1944).
In The Lancet,page 1142, May 8, 1937 it is shown that chilblains are practicallyeliminated (result of higher calcium values of raw milk orimproved assimilation of calcium) when raw milk rather thanpasteurized milk is used in the diet of children.
PasteurizationDestroys Vitamin A
"... Accordingto S. Schmidt-Nielsen and Schmidt-Nielson (Kgl. Norske Videnskab.Selsk. Forhandl., 1:126-128, abstracted in Biological Abstracts,4:94, 1930), when milk pasteurized at 63 degrees C. (145 degreesF.) was fed to mature rats, early death or diminished vitalityresulted in the offspring. This was attributed to the destructionof vitamin A."
-Krauss,W.E., Erb, J.H. and Washburn, R.G. Studies on the nutritivevalue of milk, II. The effect of pasteurization on someof the nutritive properties of milk," Ohio AgriculturalExperiment Station Bulletin 518, page 9, January, 1933.
PasteurizationDestroys Vitamin B Complex
"Pasteurizationof milk destroys about 38 percent of the B complex accordingto Dutcher and his associates ..."
-Lewis,L.R., The relation of the vitamins to obstetrics, AmericanJournal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 29.5:759. May, 1935.
"Mattick andGolding’s "Relative value of Raw and Heated Milkin Nutrition, in The Lancet (220:662-667), reported some preliminaryexperiments which indicated that pasteurization destroys someof the dietetic value of milk, including partial destructionof Vitamin B1. These same workers found the raw milk to beconsiderably superior to sterilized milk in nutritive value."
-Krauss,W. E., Erb, J. H. and Washburn, R.G., Studies on the nutritivevalue of milk, II. The effect of pasteurization on someof the nutritive properties of milk," Ohio AgriculturalExperiment Station Bulletin 518, page 7, January, 1933.
"... On the7.5 cc. level two rats on raw milk developed mild polyneuritistoward the end of the trial; whereas three rats on pasteurizedmilk developed polyneuritis early, which became severe asthe trial drew to a close. On the 10.0 cc. level none of therats on raw milk developed polyneuritis, but three on pasteurizedmilk were severely afflicted."
"Using standardmethods for determining vitamins A, B, G and D, it was foundthat pasteurization destroyed at least 25 percent of the vitaminB in the original raw milk."
PasteurizationDestroys Vitamin C
"... The pasteurizationof milk has been found to destroy 20 percent to 50 percent[of the vitamin C] the first month of life. The reasonableprocedure, therefore, appears to be to use pasteurized milkto insure protection against disease germs of various kindsand to supply the vitamin deficiency through other foods.The success in infant feeding based on this principle is evincedespecially in the amazing reduction in infant mortality inthe summer months."
-Jordan,E.O.,A Textbook of General Bacteriology, Twelfth Edition,Revised, page 691, W. B. Saunders Co., 1938.
"Within thepast few years an increasing number of patients affected withscurvy have been brought to the Oregon Children’s Hospital.As the prophylactic amount of vitamin C (15 mg. daily) iscontained in 300 cc. of breast milk, scurvy is rarely foundin breastfed babies. The vitamin C of cow’s milk is largelydestroyed by pasteurization or evaporation."
-Overstreet,R.M., Northwest Medicine, June, 1938, as abstracted by ClinicalMedicine and Surgery, "The Increase of Scurvy,"42, 12:598, December, 1938.
"Samples ofraw, certified , certified Guernsey and certified vitaminD milks were collected at the different dairies throughoutthe city of Madison. These milks on the average are only alittle below the fresh milks as recorded in Table I, indicatingthat commercial raw and certified milks as delivered to theconsumer lose only a small amount of their antiscorbutic potency.Likewise, samples of commercial pasteurized milks were collectedand analyzed. On an average they contained only about one-halfas much ascorbic acid as fresh raw milks and significantlyless ascorbic acid than the commercial unpasteurized milks.
It was found thatcommercial raw milks contained an antiscorbutic potency thatwas only slightly less than fresh raw milks and that pasteurizedmilks on the average contained only one-half the latter potency.Mineral modification and homogenization apparently have adestructive effect on ascorbic acid."
-Woessner,Warren W., Evehjem, C.A., and Schuette, Henry A., "Thedetermination of ascorbic acid in commercial milks,"Journal of Nutrition, 18,6:619-626, December, 1939.
Lee Foundation for Nutritional Research
Publication Date: 12/11/39
So don’twaste your money on "organic" milk anymore. Thisis a waste of your resources. Redirect your energy to findreal raw milk sources.
Ideally, youcan find a local farmer who will be willing to sell that toyou. If you find one you will want to encourage him to considerrestricting grains from the cows’ feed to improve thequality of the milk.