Treating Hemorrhoids With Surgery

hemorrhoid surgery

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  • If you notice that your hemorrhoids become quite large, bleed a lot, cause excessive pain, interfere with bowel movements or become swollen and hard, surgery might be necessary
  • Before having surgery for hemorrhoids, consult a physician or surgeon first to determine the procedure that’s right for you

While there are homemade treatment protocols that patients with hemorrhoids can follow, there are cases that persist despite being treated. If you notice that your hemorrhoids become quite large, bleed a lot, cause excessive pain, interfere with bowel movements, or become swollen and hard, surgery might be necessary.1,2,3

Before having surgery for hemorrhoids, consult a physician or surgeon to determine the procedure that’s right for you, or if there are other nonsurgical solutions that you haven’t tried that could help with your case. There are three different surgical treatments for hemorrhoids, all with their pros and cons.

Hemorrhoidectomy

In this procedure, the surgeon extracts the tissue that causes bleeding4 by making small incisions around the anus. Prior to the operation, the patient may be given either local or general anesthesia.5

While hemorrhoidectomy is considered the most effective at treating recurrent hemorrhoid cases and lowering the risk of hemorrhoids recurrence, there are potential and painful complications. Bleeding, urinary tract infections, temporary difficulty in emptying your bladder and stools, and post-surgery pain are common problems after this procedure.6 Recovery time can take up to two weeks, although you may need as many as three to six weeks to resume your normal routines.7

Stapled Hemorrhoidectomy

A stapled hemorrhoidectomy, also called a procedure for prolapse and hemorrhoids (PPH), is often performed on hemorrhoids, whether they have or haven’t prolapsed, or if they have made their way down to the rectum.8

This surgery entails using a circular stapler-like apparatus to move the hemorrhoid back into its place inside your rectum. As the Oxford Radcliffe Hospitals notes, if there is excess tissue above the hemorrhoid, the surgeon uses the stapler to remove them and staples remaining tissue inside the rectum.9

This surgical procedure aims to block blood supply that causes the hemorrhoid to enlarge and expand. In effect, blood supply is significantly lessened and the hemorrhoid shrinks.10 According to the book “Anesthesiologist’s Manual of Surgical Procedure,” the anesthesia used for a stapled hemorrhoidectomy is identical to those used for a hemorrhoidectomy: local or general anesthesia.11

Compared to a hemorrhoidectomy, hemorrhoid stapling may be less painful and itchy, and has a shorter recovery period.12 However, there are complications that have been linked to a stapled hemorrhoidectomy, such as:13,14

Post-surgery bleeding

Inflammation or infection of the rectal wall due to damage (often caused by drawing too much tissue into the device)

Increased urge to urinate

Damage to internal muscles of the sphincter, resulting in long-term dysfunction (severe pain or incontinence)

Long-term pain

Deep vein thrombosis (blood clot)

Pulmonary embolism (blood clot in the lungs)

Stenosis (narrowing of the anus)

Recurrence of hemorrhoids

Rectal prolapse (rectum protrudes from the anus)15

Hemorrhoidal Artery Ligation

Hemorrhoidal artery ligation involves using a special Doppler ultrasound device, called a proctoscope, that’ll be placed in the anal canal. This device may help locate the blood vessels that cause the hemorrhoids by triggering high-frequency sound waves.16,17,18

Once these blood vessels are located, a small window inside the proctoscope allows your surgeon to place a needle holder and ultimately stitch blood vessels. By doing so, blood supply leading to the hemorrhoids is blocked, prompting shrinking of the hemorrhoids. Plus, this procedure is said to aid in decreasing instances or risk for prolapsed hemorrhoids.19

Reduced instances of pain, quicker recovery time compared to other surgeries, and lowered risk for bleeding, pain during bowel movement or prolapsed hemorrhoids are arguably some of hemorrhoidal artery ligation’s advantages.20 However, patients who undergo this may complain of discomfort, post-surgery bleeding and infections, albeit rare.21

MORE ABOUT HEMORRHOIDS

Hemorrhoids: Introduction

What Are Hemorrhoids?

Hemorrhoids Causes

Hemorrhoids Types

Hemorrhoids Symptoms

Hemorrhoids In Pregnancy

Hemorrhoids Treatment

Hemorrhoids Surgery

Hemorrhoids Prevention

Essential Oils for Hemorrhoids

Hemorrhoids Diet

Hemorrhoids FAQ

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