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Symptoms of Schizophrenia

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  • The symptoms of schizophrenia are classified into positive and negative symptoms. Positive refers to new behavior patterns that weren't there before, while negative refers to traits that were greatly reduced and, in severe cases, may become totally lost

The symptoms of schizophrenia are classified into positive and negative symptoms. Positive refers to new behavior patterns that weren't there before, while negative refers to traits that were greatly reduced and, in severe cases, may become totally lost. Below are the positive symptoms of schizophrenia:1,2

  • Delusions — These are false beliefs that are contrary to reality. For example, a person with schizophrenia might think the government is out to get them, and subsequently starts seeing government agents everywhere, even though it's not real.
  • Hallucinations These refer to things that a patient may hear, see, smell or feel that only they are experiencing. A patient may also hear voices in their head that they say talk to them or even to one another. Colors and shapes may become distorted in the patient's own field of view as well.3
  • Disorganized thoughts and speech — Oftentimes, communication may be impaired and the patient may converse in unrelated thoughts. They may speak in gibberish, or “zone out.”
  • Abnormal physical behavior People with schizophrenia often exhibit odd behavior, such as repeating the same movements. In other cases, they may stand still in the same position for hours.
  • Color symbolism — A symptom unique to schizophrenia, color symbolism refers to the idea that different colors convey different messages to them. Typically, persons with schizophrenia believe that the messages are coming from a higher power or being.4

Below are the negative symptoms associated with schizophrenia:5

  • Apathy — This typically manifests as a lack of drive or ambition to be involved in activities that were once important, such as hobbies or studies.
  • Social withdrawal — Those who undergo social withdrawal typically shun or minimize social contact, and spend a great part of the day by themselves.
  • Lethargy Persons with schizophrenia typically have very low energy and engage in little physical activity, preferring to spend a large portion of their time in bed instead.
  • Reductions in speech — This symptom typically refers to very minimal interest in conversation. In extreme cases, the person may be completely mute.

All of these symptoms fall under "undifferentiated schizophrenia," (wherein a person exhibits a mixture of positive and negative symptoms), but do not fall under any specialized schizophrenia subtype. The following are the more specific subtypes of schizophrenia.

Paranoid Schizophrenia

Paranoia refers to the feeling that an individual or group is out to get you for a crime, or exaggerated opinions of an event. To the he arguments formed trying to justify the paranoia may sound logical, but they are still based on unfounded claims.

Catatonic Schizophrenia

Patients who suffer from catatonic schizophrenia generally exhibit two different forms of catatonia. The first one is "catatonic stupor," wherein a patient displays a drastic reduction in physical activity, even to the point where they may stay still for hours at a time. The second one is "catatonic excitement," wherein a patient usually displays hyperactivity, repetitive movements and imitation of sounds and actions from items and people in their surroundings.

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Residual Schizophrenia

Those who belong under this subtype have originally shown strong symptoms of schizophrenia, but are now in a more stable, controllable state, with a reduction in negative symptoms. If treatment goes according to plan, it's possible for the patient to live a productive life, but they may be susceptible to attacks every now and then.6

Disorganized Schizophrenia

The main indicator for this type of schizophrenia is the disorganization of thought processes, such as the disruption of physical activities and routines. Hallucinations and delusions may still appear but are less common. Those who suffer from this type are often emotionally unstable, or may have responses not appropriate given the current situation. They may also often have difficulty ordering their words to form coherent sentences. 7

Schizophrenia in Children and Teenagers

It's possible for children to be affected with schizophrenia. Typically, schizophrenia in children has more auditory hallucinations rather than visual and olfactory hallucinations,8 but there are particular symptoms, such as:9,10

  • Language impairments
  • Unusual crawling
  • Severe anxiety
  • Having difficulties relating with friends
  • Confusing between what is shown on television and reality

While the symptoms above are for young children, the following are typically apparent in teenagers:

  • Drop in school performance
  • Signs of depression or irritability
  • Social withdrawal
  • Lack of motivation
  • More likely to have visual hallucinations


Schizophrenia: Introduction

What Is Schizophrenia?

Schizophrenia Types

Schizophrenia in Children

Schizophrenia Causes

Is Schizophrenia Hereditary?

Schizophrenia Symptoms

Schizophrenia Diagnosis

Schizophrenia Treatment

Famous People With Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia Prevention

Living With Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia FAQ

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