One of the strongest indicators of women who will progress from social to problem drinkers is childhood sexual abuse. She found that women drinkers were more likely to have parents who drank and less likely to have grown up in a religion that disapproved of drinking. A history of depression, anxiety, self-dissatisfaction, early family disruption and rejecting parents did not make women more likely to become problem drinkers. Girls at highest risk of sexual abuse have a mother who drinks and a rejecting father. Only 9% of abused women reported the father as the perpetrator while 55% said the abusers were adults outside the family. The mother either drank in response to known abuse of the child or, because of drinking, failed to protect her.