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Weekly health quiz — Antibiotics, autism and walking

1 Before the advent of antibiotics, which of the following herbs was commonly used in the treatment of various infections?

  • Ashwagandha
  • Sage
  • Chamomile
  • Echinacea

    Before antibiotics, echinacea was used as a general cure for various infections and wounds, including malaria, scarlet fever and syphilis, and Native Americans primarily used echinacea to help treat the common cold. Learn more.

2 Of the 10 foods the FDA found to be contaminated with PFAS chemicals, the following food contained the highest amounts:

  • Chocolate cake

    The EPA's advisory threshold for PFOA/PFAS in drinking water is 70 parts per trillion. Food testing by the FDA revealed 10 of the 91 foods tested contained PFAS chemicals above this level. At 17,640 ppt, chocolate cake contained more than 250 times the EPA's advisory level for water. Learn more.

  • Chicken
  • Tilapia
  • Hot dogs

3 France recently banned which of the following food additives, citing lack of evidence of safety?

  • Silicon oxide
  • Nanosized titanium dioxide

    Due to mounting safety concerns, France recently banned nanosized titanium dioxide in food, effective 2020. There are no regulations governing nanoparticles in food in the U.S. Learn more.

  • Sodium
  • Monosodium glutamate

4 Which of the following has been shown to have the best success rate in the treatment of depression in scientific studies?

  • Ketogenic diet
  • Psychotherapy
  • Exercise

    A recent review, which examined randomized controlled trials published between 1999 and 2016, and meta-analyses/systematic reviews published between 2009 and 2016, concluded that "exercise is an evidenced-based medicine for depression." Many studies have also demonstrated that exercise is on par with antidepressants in terms of effectiveness. Learn more.

  • Antidepressants

5 The recommendation to walk at least 10,000 steps a day is based on:

  • Published research
  • Educated guesses by fitness scientists
  • Fake news story
  • A Japanese marketing campaign launched in 1965 to promote the Manpo-key pedometer, a brand name that translates to "10,000 steps meter"

    The idea of walking at least 10,000 steps a day actually comes from a Japanese marketing campaign by the Yamasa Clock and Instrument Company, launched in 1965 to promote its Manpo-key pedometer, a brand name that translates to "10,000 steps meter." Learn more.

6 Which of the following statements about Gardasil is true, based on data from Merck's own safety trials?

  • Gardasil increases the overall risk of death by 370%, and may raise the risk of a serious medical condition by 50%

    In "The Plaintiff's Science Day Presentation on Gardasil," Robert F. Kennedy Jr. reveals Merck data showing Gardasil increases the overall risk of death by 370%, the risk of autoimmune disease by 2.3% and the risk of a serious medical condition by 50%. Learn more.

  • Gardasil effectively prevents cervical cancer and other HPV related cancers
  • Gardasil protects against precancerous lesions in those previously exposed to the HPV viruses included in the vaccine
  • Gardasil has been shown to improve reproductive health in women

7 The following scenario has been found to increase the risk of autism spectrum disorder with intellectual disability by as much as 30 percent:

  • Low exercise frequency during pregnancy
  • High exposure to glyphosate during pregnancy

    Recent research found that among children born of women with high exposure to glyphosate during pregnancy the rate of autism spectrum disorder with intellectual disability was 30 percent higher than among those born of mothers who lived further from highly-sprayed areas. Learn more.

  • Living in a suburban area during pregnancy
  • Excessive sun exposure during pregnancy