- What Is Melatonin?
- Uses of Melatonin in Your Body
- 6 Ways to Optimize Your Melatonin Levels Naturally
- Studies Regarding the Use of Melatonin Supplements
- Benefits of Melatonin Supplement
- Do Not Take Melatonin if You Have These Conditions
- Side Effects of Melatonin
- Consider Optimizing Your Melatonin Levels Naturally Before Taking a Supplement
- Frequently Asked Questions
Sleeping is an essential human function, and at the heart of it is your circadian rhythm, also known as your body clock. It's a natural, biological timer that helps your body recognize sleepiness and wakefulness over a period of 24 hours.
By sticking to a regular bedtime schedule, such as sleeping and waking up at the same time each day, you can maintain a steady circadian rhythm that will allow you to maximize your productivity while you're awake, and get the right amount of sleep when nighttime arrives.1
Your circadian rhythm is largely dictated by your pineal gland. This gland is located near the center of your brain, with a shape that looks similar to a pine cone, hence the name. It's estimated to be one-third of an inch long, and is made up of unique pineal cells and neuroglial cells that help support the gland.
Despite its small size, it plays a crucial role in your health because it produces a single hormone called melatonin, which is vital for controlling your body clock and, ultimately, your sleeping patterns.2
Melatonin, or N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine, is a hormone produced by the pineal gland.3 Your brain usually starts secreting melatonin around 9 p.m., which is the time most people go to bed. By increasing the amount, your body begins to recognize that bedtime is fast approaching, allowing you to sleep at an ideal time.4
To do this properly, you need to be aware of your exposure to light throughout the day and especially at night, because melatonin production depends on how much light your body absorbs.
If you stay awake past dark, light emitted by electrical devices hampers your body's ability to produce melatonin. Ideally, you want to stop using gadgets an hour before sleeping to help increase melatonin production and maintain a steady circadian rhythm. Nightshift workers usually have it worse and constantly suffer from disrupted body clocks, because of their poor melatonin production.
What is the role of melatonin anyway? Based on published research, it has been discovered to perform three main functions:
• Controls your circadian rhythm — Melatonin works as a sleeping aid by normalizing your circadian rhythm by convincing your body to prepare itself for bedtime.5 It's a hormone that only "signals" your body to prepare for sleep, not one that actually makes you fall asleep.
• Functions as an antioxidant — Recent studies have found that melatonin not only affects your body clock, but also functions as an antioxidant that can help support your health. Specifically, it may help different aspects of your brain, cardiovascular and gastrointestinal health.6 It may even lower your risk of cancer, in some cases.7
• Boosts your immune system — Melatonin may benefit your immune system in various ways. In one study, researchers suggest that melatonin may help improve the treatment of bacterial diseases such as tuberculosis.8 In another study, melatonin has been suggested as a potential tool against inflammation, autoimmune diseases and Type 1 diabetes.9
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), an estimated 50 to 70 million Americans are suffering from a sleeping or wakefulness disorder.10 As a result, many of them turn to various remedies, such as behavioral and environmental changes, to get a good night's rest.11
One of the first things you can do is to make sure that your body is producing enough melatonin. Optimizing your melatonin levels naturally is important because it helps keep your body functioning normally without relying on outside factors. So, instead of immediately relying on melatonin supplementation, here are a few lifestyle changes I suggest you try first to boost your melatonin production:
• Avoid using electronic devices an hour before sleeping — Gadgets such as cellphones, TVs and computers emit blue light, and exposure to it tricks your body into thinking it's still daytime. By avoiding gadgets an hour before bed, your body can produce the melatonin needed to help you sleep at your intended time.
• Make sure to get regular sunlight exposure — Getting regular sun exposure in the morning or at noontime helps your body reduce its melatonin production, so that when nighttime arrives, your pineal gland produces the correct amount to induce sleepiness.
• Try to sleep in complete darkness — If possible, try to remove immediate light sources from your room to help improve your sleep quality. The slightest exposure to light can interfere with your body's melatonin production and keep you up later than you need. Keep gadgets 3 feet away from your bed or use blackout window shades.
• Remove sources of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in your bedroom — EMFs emitted by certain devices such as Internet routers can disrupt your pineal gland's melatonin production. Ideally, you should turn off your wireless router, as well as other wireless devices connected to the Internet before sleeping.
• If you need a nightlight, use a low-wattage yellow, orange or red bulb — Low-wattage bulbs with a yellow, orange or red color do not interfere with melatonin production the same way that white and blue bulbs do.
• Wear blue light-blocking glasses — This special device can help keep your eyes from absorbing blue light that can affect your melatonin levels. It can be a useful tool to have around the house, especially if you're constantly surrounded by gadgets and artificial light sources.
In addition, the following foods are known to contain small amounts of melatonin. Making them a part of your regular diet while practicing the aforementioned sleeping tips may help improve sleep quality:12
- Grass fed meat (lamb, beef and pork)
- Wild-caught salmon
- Pasture-raised chicken and eggs
- Raw, grass fed milk
- Tart cherries
- Seeds (Flax, sunflower, fennel, mustard, alfalfa, celery and fenugreek)
- Nuts (pistachio, almonds and walnuts)
If you've already tried everything, including incorporating melatonin foods in your diet, and you're still having difficulty getting quality sleep, you may consider taking a melatonin supplement. In 2016 alone, 3.1 million adults in the United States turned to melatonin supplementation to help them sleep peacefully.13
Since the discovery of melatonin, various studies have been conducted to discover how using it as a supplement can benefit your health. According to the Journal of Pineal Research, the melatonin secreted by your pineal gland enters every cell in your body and can even cross morphophysiologic barriers.
As a result, not only may it help you improve sleep quality,14 it also has certain anti-inflammatory compounds that may help reduce your risk of cardiovascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis and hypertension.15
In addition, a study published in Endocrine Journal reports that increasing melatonin intake may help improve your overall health, as this hormone can be an effective antioxidant that can help fight free radicals in your body.16
Another study suggests that melatonin may help obese people manage their weight. The researchers indicate that certain lifestyle factors suppress melatonin production, which results in sleep disruption that can lead to weight gain. By increasing melatonin production, adequate sleep can be reintroduced as part of a healthy lifestyle, along with other positive lifestyle changes, to help curb obesity.17
Melatonin may help boost your health in various situations, as shown in the table below. While each benefit is backed up with scientific research, always consult with a doctor before giving melatonin supplements a try:
• Insomnia — Melatonin is primarily used to help treat people who have sleeping disorders by inducing sleepiness quicker.18
• Jet lag — Melatonin may be used to help treat jet lag by adjusting your body to a new time zone. However, it's generally recommended only for travelers who cross four to five time zones.19
• Heart disease — People who are struggling with heart disease may benefit from melatonin. A study has found that it may help lower your bad cholesterol levels by as much as 38 percent.20
• Menopause — Increasing melatonin consumption in menopausal women 42 to 62 years old may help improve mood and stave off depression.21
• Autism — Children diagnosed with autism who are also plagued with sleeping problems may benefit from melatonin supplementation. Research indicates that taking the hormone can lead to deeper sleep and better daytime behavior.22 However, I advise consulting your health care provider before giving any melatonin supplement to children.
• Fibromyalgia — People affected with fibromyalgia are believed to have lower levels of melatonin. A group of researchers found that increasing the melatonin levels of fibromyalgia sufferers through supplementation helped alleviate their symptoms and improved sleep quality.23
• Gallstones — Melatonin can help lower your risk of gallstones by inhibiting cholesterol absorption across the intestinal epithelium, as well as increasing the conversion of cholesterol into bile.24
• Tinnitus — If you have tinnitus, slightly increasing your melatonin may help improve your symptoms. In one study, participants who took 3 milligrams of melatonin supplements every night experienced a decrease in tinnitus intensity after the testing duration.25
Here's a crucial question you should ask yourself: Are you fit to take melatonin? While there are valid reasons for taking this supplement, remember that it can exacerbate certain health conditions as well. If you're taking any of the following medications, you should not take melatonin as the mixture can have adverse effects to your health:26
• Anticoagulants and anti-platelet drugs
• Contraceptive drugs
• Diabetes medications
Taking melatonin while pregnant should be avoided as well, since there's little knowledge in this field.27 If you've recently developed pregnancy-related sleeping problems, I advise you to consider behavioral and dietary changes before considering melatonin or other similar types of supplement.
Refrain from giving melatonin to children, including babies and toddlers, unless approved by your physician. While a 2016 study found that children with sleep difficulties who took melatonin did not develop any concerns or adverse side effects,28 it's better to be safe.
Some of melatonin's potential side effects include:29,30
- Daytime sleepiness
- Short-term depression
- Vivid dreams, or possibly nightmares
- Mild anxiety
- Abdominal discomfort
- Body clock disruption
If you are already taking a melatonin supplement and begin to experience any of the mentioned side effects, stop taking it immediately and consult with a doctor for safer alternatives. In addition, melatonin and alcohol should not be taken together, as it can increase your chances of accidents because the sedative effects are amplified.31
Melatonin is a crucial hormone that performs few but important functions. Low levels of it can lead to sleep disruption, increase your risk of certain diseases and lower your antioxidant capabilities. However, remember to always try and improve your sleeping habits and environment before attempting melatonin supplementation.
While there's an abundance of scientific evidence that suggest melatonin supplementation can be beneficial to your health, too much of it can actually make you more wakeful. By primarily focusing on natural strategies, you forego this risk, as well as the chances of developing unpleasant side effects that can further disrupt your quality of sleep. If you do decide to take a melatonin supplement, seek guidance from a doctor first.
Q: Is melatonin addictive?
A: Currently, there's very little information regarding melatonin supplement addiction. However, beware that it can still be abused, although the chances of becoming dependent are lower compared to other types of medications or supplements.32
Q: How long does it take for melatonin to work?
A: The average time for melatonin supplements to work is generally 20 minutes. If you're about to take melatonin for the first time, it's recommended that you take it one to two hours before your bedtime.33
Q: Can you take melatonin supplements while pregnant?
A: As of the moment, there is a lack of scientific evidence regarding the use of melatonin supplements on pregnant women, but it's theorized that it may hamper sex drive, reduce ovarian function and increase the risk of developmental disorders. If you're pregnant, it is best that you avoid using this supplement and resort to natural remedies to correct sleeping problems.34
Q: Is melatonin safe to use for kids?
A: Melatonin supplements are generally safe for children. According to a study published in Canadian Family Physician, children with sleep difficulties who took melatonin had no concerns or adverse side effects, according to their parents.35 However, consult with your child's pediatrician before giving them any type of melatonin supplement.
Q: When is the ideal time to take melatonin?
A: Taking a melatonin supplement two hours before bedtime can help you maximize its effectiveness.36
Q: How long does the effects of melatonin last?
A: The half-life of melatonin is very short, around 59 to 65 minutes only.37
Q: Can you overdose on melatonin?
A: Yes. While there are no reported deaths related to overdosing from melatonin, consuming more than the recommended amount can cause side effects, such as autoimmune hepatitis, a psychotic episode, seizures, headaches or skin eruption.38